International Wushu Competiton Routones

Wushu, as an international competitive sport is truly developing on a worldwide scale in leaps and bounds. There is an urgent need to standardize wushu competition routines in order that Chinese and foreign competitors may compete on equal footing. Thus, the Chinese Wushu Research Institute of China organized a group of professors, specialists, famous wushu trainers and top level artists to develop a set of ten standard competition routines, namely Changquan(Long Boxing), Nanquan(Southern Style Boxing), Taijiquan, Daoshu(Boardsword Play), Jianshu(Sword Play), Gunshu(Cudgel Play), Qiangshu(Spear Play), Nandao(Southern Style Boardsword Play), Nangun(Southern Style Cudgel Play) and Taijijian.

These ten competition routines, which are improved in content, specification of movements, compact structure, routine layout, number of movements and series of movements and competition time limits, all conform with the international wushu competition rules. These routines have been examined and verified by China Wushu Association, The People's Republic of China.

Wushu Sports

Originated in China, wushu is time-honored, rich in content and diversified in forms. In its age-long process of development wushu has been referred to as martial arts, "guoshu", as well as "gongfu" in some areas. The origin of wushu can be traced back to the early activities of the ancestors of the Chinese people who struggled hard for survival.During the prolonged cold weaponry age wushu was employed by the army to subdue the enemy, practiced by the ordinary people as a means for self-defense and physical training, as well as for a cheerful life. During the process of its gradual improvement and development in modern times, wushu has been basically separated from military skills. With attack and defense as its basic movements and the Chinese traditional culture as its background, wushu has become a sports event which includes taolu and sanshou disciplines.

Traditional Wushu

The traditional wushu, the root of the contemporary wushu, has developed according to wushu's traditional style and its own law of development. With distinctive characteristics of China's traditional sports culture, traditional wushu is practiced by the broad masses of the people, it has an enormous potential for development. Its value for health-building, self-defense and cultural education is greatly appreciated by the people with different cultural backgrounds. Now it is steadily entering the domain of sport for all, as well as the fields of the continuing sports, leisure sports and cultural sports of the people in the world.

Competitive Wushu

Wushu taolu is a set of connecting stylized movements choreographed according to certain laws, embodying the philosophical connotation of attack and defense.

Wushu sanshou disciplines are fighting movements between two people for both attack-defense exercises. Besides, there are other types of fighting movements, such as tuishou, duanbing and changbing.

Rules for International Wushu Taolu Competition

Competition Committee

The Competition Committee of the World Championships and the World Cup shall be composed of wushu experts appointed by the International Wushu Federation and the Organizing Committee. It is held responsible for all work of the Competition. According to the scale of competition, each continental, regional or national federation may form its own Competition Committee or Department composed of technical officials to take charge of the whole organizational work of the Competition under the leadership of the Organizing Committee.

Types of Competition

The Competition is divided into Individual competition, Team competition, and Individual/team competition. The Competition may be divided into Senior competition, Junior competition and Children's competition.

Competition Events

Changquan (long-range boxing; CQ)

Nanquan (southern-style boxing; NQ)

Taijiquan (taiji boxing; TJQ)

Jianshu (swordplay; JS)

Daoshu (broadswordplay; DS)

Qiangshu (spearplay; QS)

Gunshu (cudgelplay; GS)

Taijijian (taiji swordplay; TJJ)

Nandao (southern-style broadswordplay; ND)

Nangun (southern-style cudgelplay; NG)

Duilian (dual events; DL), subdivided into duilian without weapons; duilian with weapons; and duilian with bare hands against weapons.

Jiti (group events; JT)

Age-groups in Competition

Senior: full age of 18 and above

Junior: from 12 to 18

Children: under 12

Scoring methods

The jury shall be composed of three (3) judges in Panel A responsible for evaluating the quality of movements; three judges in Panel B responsible for evaluating the overall performance and the head judge, and three judges in Panel C responsible for evaluating the degree of difficulty.

The full starting score for all events is ten (10) points (not counting bonus for innovative movements), including five (5) points for the quality of movements, three (3) points for the overall performance, and two (2) points for the degree of difficulty. A competitor's starting score means the total value he claims for the degree of difficulty, overall performance and quality of movements.

The judges in Panel A shall deduct points according to the errors committed by a competitor during his performance of the whole routine. The four judges in Panel B shall evaluate the overall performance of the whole routine and deduct points for choreographical errors in it. The highest point and the lowest point shall be deducted. The average of the two middle scores shall be awarded to the competitor as points for grade of overall performance.

All choreographical errors found in the performance and resultant deductions shall come into effect only with the simultaneous confirmation by at least two of the four panel members. The total of deducted points shall be the deduction for choreographical errors.

Tied Scores

Tied scores in individual events shall be solved in the following ways:

The competitor who has successfully completed movements of higher degrees of difficulty shall be placed higher;

The competitor who has completed a greater number of difficult movements shall be placed higher;

The competitor with a higher score for difficult movements shall be placed higher;

If the tie remains, the competitor with a higher score for overall performance shall be placed higher;

If the tie remains, the competitor with a lower deduction of points for overall performance shall be placed higher;

If the tie remains, the tied competitors shall share the place.

In competitions with preliminaries and finals, the competitor with better results in the preliminaries shall be placed higher. If the tie remains, the placing in the finals shall be determined as provided in the above paragraphs.

In the individual all-around event, the competitor who ranks first in more individual events shall be placed higher. If the tie remains, the competitor who ranks second in more individual events shall be placed higher, and so on and so forth. In case of an equal number of places in all individual events, the tied competitors shall share the place.

In the team total points, the team which ranks first in more individual events shall be placed higher. If the tie remains, the team with more second places in individual events shall be placed higher, and so on and so forth. In case of an equal number of places in all individual events, the tied teams shall share the place.

Duration of routines

Routines of changquan, nanquan, jianshu, daoshu, qiangshu, gunshu, nandao and nangun shall last for no less than 1 minute and 20 seconds for the seniors, and for no less than 1 minute and 10 seconds for the juniors and children. Optional routines of taijiquan and taijijian and group events shall last for 3-4 minutes. Compulsory routines of taijiquan shall last for 5-6 minutes. Dual routines shall last for no less than 50 seconds.

Bonus and Deduction by the Head Judge

The head judge shall be responsible for awarding bonus for innovative movements.

The head judge shall be responsible for deduction for repetitive movements and overtime or undertime performances.

Repetitive movements

A competitor whose performance is interrupted by unforeseen circumstances may repeat it with the head judge's permission, and no deduction will be made. If the interruption is caused by forgetfulness, errors or broken apparatus, the competitor may repeat his performance once, with a deduction of 1 point. When a competitor is not able to continue his performance due to injuries, the head judge may stop it. If he is able to go on after simple treatment, arrangements shall be made for him to resume his performance at the end of his heat, with a deduction of 1 point, as is the case with repetitive movements.

For taijiquan, taijijian and group events, 0.1 point shall be deducted for undertime or overtime performance for five (5) seconds and above, 0.20 point for five (5) to ten (10) seconds, and so on and so forth.

For changquan, nanquan, jianshu, daoshu, qiangshu, gunshu, nandao, nangun and dual events, 0.1 point shall be deducted for undertime or overtime performance for two (2) seconds and above; 0.2 point for two (2) to four (4) seconds, and so on and so forth.

In case of obviously improper or mistaken judgment made by a judge in evaluation, the head judge may, before the visual display of the competitor's final score, make adjustments with the chief referees' permission.

Decimal System of Scores

Judges in Panel A may display scores with one (1) decimal place.

Judges in Panel B and Panel C may display scores with two (2) decimal places.

Competition Area

Competitions shall be held in competition areas designated by the IWUF. Individual events shall be conducted on a 14 m x 8 m carpet, surrounded by a 2-m-wide safety area. Group events shall be conducted on a 16 m x 14 m carpet, surrounded by a 1-meter-wide safety area. The edges of the carpet shall be marked with a 5-cm-wide white band. The ceiling shall be at least 8 m over the carpet. The distance between two carpets shall be at least 6 m. The vertical luminance of the competition area shall be over 1500 LUX, and the horizontal luminance over 800 LUX.

Competition apparatus

Ony IWUF-designated apparatus shall be used in competition. When a sword or broadsword is held in a competitor's left hand, its tip shall be no lower than his ear-top. The length of a cudgel shall be no shorter than the performer's height, and the length of a spear no shorter than the distance from the floor up to his middle fingertip when he stands upright with his arm held straight overhead. When a southern-style broadsword is held in his left hand, its tip shall be no lower than his lower jaw.

국제우슈경기투로소개

우슈는 국제 경기스포츠 종목으로서 사실상 세계적인 규모로 빠르게 발전하고 있다. 중국인을 비롯한 외국인 경쟁자들이 동등한 입장에서 겨룰 수 있게 하기 위해 우슈경기투로 표준화가 시급히 필요했다. 따라서 중국의 유명한 트레이너, 교수, 전문가, 그리고 정상급의 선수들로 조직된 중국무술연구원에서 장권 남권, 태극권, 도술, 검술, 곤술, 창술, 남도, 남곤, 태극검으로 명명된 10개의 표준경기투로를 개발하였다. 이들 10가지 경기투로는 동작에 대한 자세한 기술, 구조의 치밀함, 투로의 배치, 동작의 수와 내용에 있어 더욱 향상되었고, 경기제한시간과 모든 동작들을 국제우슈경기투로규칙에 따랐다. 이들 국제우슈경기투로는 중화인민공화국 중국우슈협회에 의해 검토, 승인받았다.

투로종목의 경기방식

1990년 북경아시안게임 정식종목(권술 3종과 기계술 4종-남녀 6개 금메달)으로 채택되었으며, 이후 2002년 부산 아시안게임을 계기로 투로(套路)종목에 출전하는 선수는 ‘전능(全能)'이라 하여 권술(拳術), 단병기(短兵器), 장병기(長兵器)중 각각 한 종목씩(장권전능, 남권전능, 태극권전능)으로 선택하여 출전했다. 특히 2003년에 경기규칙과 심판법이 변경되어 경기방식도 새롭게 변경되었으며 그 가운데 가장 큰 변화 중 하나는 난도동작 도입을 통한 규정(規定)투로에서 자선(自選)투로의 새로운 경기방식의 전환이었고 이 경기방식은 2005년 마카오 동아시아대회부터 적용하기 시작했다.

자선투로는 경기적응력을 높이는데 유효하며 선수 개인의 무궁한 능력과 실력을 펼칠 수 있는 경기투로이다. 여기에서는 자선 투로의 동작수량, 조별완성 투로시간 등 우슈(武術)경기의 규칙과 규정을 엄정히 요구한다. 이와 같은 내용을 보면 권, 장, 구 등의 3종 수형과 궁보, 마보, 부보, 허보, 헐보 등 5종의 보형과 일정수량의 권법, 장법, 주법과 서로 다른 조별의 퇴법 및 평형성, 도약 등의 동작과 완성 투로 시간 등을 엄격하게 규정하고 있다. 장권 투로 동작에 있어 맺음의 구조, 구성 및 배열과 안배의 속도, 난도, 등공도약 등이 새롭게 창출되며 장권류 및 권계투로를 이루는 우슈(武術)경기의 주요관건 내용이다.

경기규칙 변경 전의 투로종목 경기방식

변경 전에는 규정투로(規定套路)로 각 나라 모든 선수가 일률적으로 똑 같은 난이도로 규정(規定)된 종목에 출전했다. 경기 투로 수행 시 득점 평가 방법으로 10점 만점 중 동작규격 6점, 공력과 협조 2점, 정신, 질주, 품격, 내용에 2점을 적용하였고, 5명의 심판은 1인당 10점을 기준으로 종합적인 내용으로 감점해 점수를 낸 다음 최고점수와 최하점수를 제외한 3명의 심판 평균점수가 최종 점수로 채택됐다. 또한 투로 종목 경기에서는 크게 선수로서 가장 적합한 체격(풍격)과 적당한 힘의 안배로 경기 투로 중 한 단에 10여 동작으로 구성 된 분단이 4개의 분단으로 규정 투로는 구성되어 있다. 경기 중 시종일관 박진감 있게 끌고 나갈 수 있는 체력, 마지막으로 같은 동작을 수행하더라도 경기장 안에서 더욱 힘차보이게, 더욱 높아보이게 표연할 수 있는 표현력이 직접적인 영향을 주는 주요 3가지 요소로 나눌 수 있다. 이 중 표현력이 규정된 14m×8m의 카펫이 깔린 경기장에서 1분 20초 동안의 짧은 시간 안에 많은 동작들을 가장 효과적으로 표현 하는 방식으로 경기를 운영하였다.

경기규칙 변경 후의 투로종목 경기방식

2005년 마카오 동아시아경기대회 때 채택, 선수개개인의 무한한 능력과 실력을 펼칠 수 있는 창작(創作) 전능종목 투로이다. 자선(自選)투로에는 자선 투로의 동작종류, 조별완성 투로시간 등을 우슈(武術)경기의 규칙과 규정안에서 모든 것을 요구한다. 내용을 보면 권(拳), 장(掌), 구(勾)등의 3종 수형(手形)과 궁(弓), 마(馬), 부(?), 허(虛), 헐보(歇步) 등 5종의 보형(步形), 일정양의 권법, 장법, 주법과 서로 다른 조별의 퇴법 및 평형, 도약 등의 동작과 완성 투로 시간 등 엄격하게 규정하고 있다. 장권전능, 남권전능, 태극권전능 투로 종목 동작에 있어 맺음의 구조, 구성 및 배열과 안배의 속도, 난이도, 등공도약 등 이 모두 새롭게 창출하며 권법류 및 병기계를 이루는 우슈(武術)경기로 2005년 동아시아대회부터 채택된 내용이다.

득점평가방법은 A, B, C조로 나누어 10점 만점 중 A조(동작질량 5점), B조(연기수준 3점), C조는(동작난도 1.4점+연결난도 0.6점 합계 2점)이라는 방식으로 변경되었으며, 이중 C조의 난이도는 각 투로 종목에서 요구하는 난이도를 자유로이 선택하여 신청하는 방식이다. 각조별 심판 배정은 3명으로 구성되었으며 A조 3명은 평균 값, B조는 두 개조로 나뉘어 한 심판은 심판장과 같이 점수를 낸다. C조는 2명 이상의 심판이 동시에 성공과 실패를 눌렀을 때 유효하다. 특히 경기 내용에 있어서 난이도를 자유로이 선택하며 자신의 투로를 규정이 아닌 자선(自選)투로로 정하여 경기에 출전하기 때문에 관중들의 흥미를 유발시킬 수 있다.

특히 선수들의 경기력에 영향을 미치는 또 다른 중요한 요소는 등공(도약)동작이다. 도약동작들은 공통적으로 도약 수행 직전의 도움닫기 부분과 공중동작, 도약상태에서의 각각의 발차기 및 회전동작과 도약동작 수행 후 착지자세, 착지 후 다음동작과의 재빠른 연결을 위한 동작 발현 등을 모두 내포하고 있는 것이다. 다른 동작에서는 선수사이의 경기력의 차이가 크게 나타나지 않으나, 도약과 관계된 동작에서는 선수들의 개인차가 많이 나타나고 있기 때문에 도약과 관계된 도약동작 기술의 향상은 곧 경기력 향상과 직결되어 있다. 그리고 도약동작은 수행방법을 알고 어느 정도 반복훈련을 하면 수행할 수 있는 다른 동작들에 비해서 오랜 수련기간을 필요로 하며 순발력과 근 지구력, 심폐기능 증진이 더욱더 요구된다. 또한 고득점을 얻기 위해서는 C조의 난이도 2점을 완성해야 하는 점과 실패하였을 때에는 A조와 B조의 점수가 모두 깎임으로 인해 난이도 훈련 향상에 필요한 트레이닝 프로그램이 중요해졌다.